David Livingstone enjoyed good health during his early years of exploring Africa. But then he contracted “African fever.” Livingstone visited the local witch doctors, who did their best to heal him. He described the ordeal as being “smoked like a red herring over green twigs,” and announced his preference for European physicians. “Now a woman was there who had been suffering from a hemorrhage for twelve years. She had endured a great deal under the care of many doctors and had spent all that she had. Yet instead of getting better, she grew worse.” Good intentions never healed a wound.