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Bibliotheca Sacra (Bib Sac) accepts manuscripts submitted as Word document attachments sent to Please remove identifying information from within the article. Bib Sac form and style follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017). For technical matters not treated in CMS, consult The SBL Handbook of Style (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2014).


Please include, at the beginning of the article, a short abstract of approximately 80 words.


Do not use abbreviations in running text; save them for parenthetical references. This includes names of Bible books, as well as common abbreviations such as “e.g.” (the words “for example” are preferable in running text). Provide complete citations of books, no matter how well known they are (i.e., the abbreviations BDAG, HALOT, etc., should not be used). Use “cf.” in parentheses to mean “compare,” but not “see.” Do not use “p./pp.” for “page(s),” or “f./ff.” for “following.” Give precise page or verse numbers instead of “f./ff.”

Final Explanation

Please answer this question at the end of your article: So What? Good research means good reading and results in good application. Succinctly describe what it is that you want our readers to grasp or gain from your article.


First-level headings are centered and in small caps. Second-level headings are flush left and in all caps. Third-level headings are indented, italicized, followed by a period, and part of the paragraph that follows.

Hebrew and Greek

Please include Hebrew and Greek (Unicode) where necessary, and not transliteration. Include vowel points for Hebrew and accents and breathing marks for Greek.

Hyphens and Dashes

Hyphens separate the elements in certain adjectival and nominal compounds: self-centered; proto-Semitic; forty-one. En dashes are used for inclusive numbers (Scripture: Luke 1:1–4; John 2:23-3:2; and pages: 87–91; 256–59; 322–37), and for successive months (April–June). See CMS 9.61. Em dashes are used, without a space on either side, to indicate a major break: “The influence of three individuals—Wellhausen, Kümmel, and Barth—is evident in this literature.”


When citing a work for the first time, include publication data (city, publisher, date) and, if appropriate, editor and translator of the work. Use postal abbreviations for states, and shortened names of publishers: Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, trans. Robert C. Schultz, rev. ed. (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1966), 265. When referring to a work previously cited (if other works intervene), include the author’s last name, the full title of the work (omit subtitle, if any), and the page reference: Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, 270. Bib Sac follows CMS for footnote citations. Spell out journal names: Journal of Biblical Literature, not JBL. For other footnote details, see a recent issue of Bib Sac. A citation of a quote or material within a footnote should be placed as follows:

First occurrence of source: “The narrative is rather bare.” Allen P. Ross, Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study of Exposition of Genesis (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996), 508.

Subsequent occurrence: “The narrative is rather bare” (Ross, Creation and Blessing, 508).

Ordering of Material

When citing multiple works in footnotes, list them in chronological order or in alphabetical order as appropriate to the purpose of the citation. Multiple Scripture references should ordinarily be in canonical order.


As a rule, avoid using first- or second-person pronouns (nominal or possessive), and do not include reader instruction that implies the second person (as in “Note the following . . .”).

Pronouns referring to God/Jesus/the Spirit are not capitalized.

Text Formatting

For emphasis, use italics sparingly. Do not use boldfaced type. Do not use any other “hidden” formatting, such as “Track Changes,” templates, personalized styles, etc. These should be deleted before the manuscript is submitted.

Verb Forms

Use past-tense verbs rather than present-tense verbs when referring to past events: “Jesus walked” (not “Jesus walks”), “Paul wrote” (not “Paul writes”), “Martin Luther declared” (not “Martin Luther declares”).