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Submission Guidelines

Bibliotheca Sacra (Bib Sac) happily accepts manuscripts submitted as Microsoft Word document attachments. You may submit a hard copy; however, immediately upon acceptance of your manuscript, we will need an electronic version.

Send manuscripts to:
Dallas Theological Seminary
Bib Sac, The Editor
3909 Swiss Avenue
Dallas, TX 75204

For general questions about Bib Sac form and style, including footnotes, abbreviations of Scripture references, punctuation, numbers, quotations, foreign languages (except Greek and Hebrew), general abbreviations, and the distinctive treatment of words, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed.(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003). For technical matters such as abbreviations pertaining to textual criticism or Qumran literature, consult The SBL Manual of Style (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1999). Normally we prefer to publish manuscripts that are between 5,000 and 5,500 words.


Please include on the first page, at the beginning of the article, a short Abstract of approximately 100 words.


Do not use abbreviations in running text; save them for parenthetical references. This includes the names of Bible books, as well as common abbreviations such as “e.g.” (the words “for example” are preferable in running text). Provide complete citations of books, no matter how well known they are (i.e., the abbreviations BAGD, BDB, TDNT, etc., should not be used). Use “cf.” in parentheses to mean “compare,” but not to mean “see.” Do not use “p./pp.” for “page(s),” or “f./ff.” for “following.” Give precise page or verse numbers instead of “f./ff.”

Final Explanation

Please answer this question at the end of your article: So What? Good research means good reading and results in good application. Succinctly describe what it is that you want our readers to grasp or gain from your article?


Headings should appear as follows:

  • First-level Heading
    • These labels for large sections are to be centered, full caps, and separate from the paragraph that follows.
  • Second-level Heading
    • These headings are to be flush left, full caps, and also separate from the following paragraph.
  • Third-level Heading
    • Headings of this sort are to be indented, italicized, followed by a period, and part of the paragraph that follows.

Hebrew and Greek

Bib Sac uses HebraicaII and GraecaII fonts. Use Hebrew and Greek letters rather than English transliteration. Include vowel points for Hebrew and accents and breathing marks for Greek.

Hyphens and Dashes

Hyphens separate the elements in certain adjectival and nominal compounds: self-centered; proto-Semitic; forty-one.

En dashes are used for inclusive numbers (Scripture: Luke 1:1-4; John 2:23-3:2; and pages: 87-91; 256-59; 322-37), and for successive months (April-June).

Em dashes are used, without a space on either side, to indicate a major break within a sentence: “The influence of three individuals—Wellhausen, Kümmel, and Barth—is evident in this literature.”


Type footnotes (not endnotes) the same size as the main text, rather than smaller, without a hard return between each one.

When citing a work for the first time, include publication data (city, publisher, date) and, if appropriate, editor and translator of the work. Use postal abbreviations for states, and use shortened names of publishers: Paul Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, trans. Robert C. Schultz, rev. ed. (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1966), 265. (Note that the word “Press” is not included in listing the publisher except for university presses.) When referring to a work previously cited (if other works intervene), include the author’s last name, the full title of the work (omit subtitle, if any), and the page reference: Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, 270.

Spell out journal names: Journal of Biblical Literature, not JBL. For other footnote details, see a recent issue of Bib Sac.

Ordering of Material

When citing multiple works in footnotes, list them in chronological order or in alphabetical order as appropriate to the purpose of the citation. Multiple Scripture references should ordinarily be in canonical order.


As a rule, avoid using first- or second-person pronouns (nominal or possessive), and do not include reader instruction that implies the second person (as in “Note the following . . .”).

Text Formatting

For emphasis, use italics sparingly. Do not use boldfaced type. Do not use any other “hidden” formatting, such as “Track Changes,” templates, personalized styles, etc. These should be deleted before the manuscript is submitted.

Verb Forms

 Use past-tense verbs rather than present-tense verbs when referring to past events: “Jesus walked” (not “Jesus walks”), “Paul wrote” (not “Paul writes”), “Martin Luther declared” (not “Martin Luther declares”)